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No written records about the birthday of Gautam Buddha were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. However, most people accept that this one of the great spiritual gurus lived, taught, and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 558 – c. 491 BCE, or c. 400 BCE), the ruler of the Magadha empire. He died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, who was the successor of Bimbisara. Another widely accepted time frame for his life is between 563 BCE and 483 BCE. More recently his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha’s death. These alternative chronologies, however, have not been accepted by all historians. Although, birth anniversary of Gautam Buddha or Buddha Jayanti is celebrated on May 12 each year and is a major Buddhist festival.The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama/Buddha was born into the Shakya clan, a community which was inhabiting on the periphery of the eastern Indian subcontinent. According to Buddhist tradition, this place was called Lumbini (in modern-day Nepal). He was raised in Kapilvastu, the Shakya capital, which may have been either the present day Tilaurakot in Nepal or Piprahwa in India.Parents:Gautama was born as a Kshatriya, the son of Śuddhodana, elected chief of the Shakya clan, whose capital was Kapilavastu. His mother’s name was Maya (Māyādevī) and she was a Koliyan princess. Legend has it that, on the night Siddhartha was conceived, she dreamt that a white elephant with six white tusks entered her right side. As was the Shakya tradition, when Queen Maya became pregnant, she left for Kapilavastu (her father’s kingdom) to give birth. However, Gautama is said to have been born en route Lumbini, in a garden beneath a sal tree. Thus, the birthplace of Buddha is Lumbini, which is in modern-day Nepal.Biographical Source:The sources for the life of Buddha sometimes conflict with the traditional biographies which include:Buddhacarita which is the earliest biography and is also an epic poem written by the famous poet Aśvaghoṣa in the 1st century CE.The Lalitavistara Sūtra is the next oldest biography on Gautam Buddha, it dates back to the 3rd century CE.The Mahāvastu from the Mahāsāṃghika Lokottaravāda tradition is another major biography which was probably composed in 4th century CE.The exhaustive Dharmaguptaka biography of the Buddha is entitled the Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra, and one can also find several Chinese translations of this dating between the 3rd and 6th century CE.The last composition, Nidānakathā by Buddhaghoṣa is from the Theravada tradition in Sri Lanka and dates back to the 5th century.Other important sources of information pertaining to the life of Gautam Buddha are Jataka tales, the Mahapadana Sutta, and the Achariyabhuta Sutta.

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